Aids in circulation and respiration; astringent, cooling, refreshing, relaxing, stimulating
Aids in digestion; carminativeThe seed yields up to 5% of an essential oil. This is used medicinally, as a food flavouring, in toothpastes, soaps, perfumery, air fresheners etc. The flavour of fennel oil depends upon its two main constituents. 'Fenchone' is a bitter tasting element whilst 'anethole' has a sweet anise-like flavour.
Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic; harmonizing, refreshing, relaxing, toning, warming, balancing
A decoction of the branches is used as an anti-dandruff shampoo. The essential oil distilled from the fruits is used in perfumes with spicy fragrances. In hot countries the tree yields the resin 'Sandarac' from incisions in the trunk. This is used in the production of a white varnish. The stems were at one time used as a strewing herb to sweeten the smell of rooms.
A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making. An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines. A higher quality essential oil is obtained from the flowers. The peel contains 0.4% essential oil. An essential oil obtained from the leaves and young twigs is called 'petitgrain oil'. Yields are around 0.4%.
Cooling, tortifying, refreshing, toning